Grammar: Reported speech on the web-site for teachers and learners of English as a secondary language from a German point of view
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Reported Speech: Rules of transformation

1. Verbs of saying

Verb of saying
in the past
connection example comment
stating that...... He stated that Tom had gone.  
asking whether......
if.....
 
 



who (Subject).......
what (Subject).....
 



who,what(Object) .......
where, when, why, whose, how...
He asked whether, if 
 
 
 



He wanted to know 
who went home.
what went wrong.



They inquired him what he would do.
Questions requiring a yes- or no-  answers 
The word order is the same as in a statement. 
There is  no "do" or "did"needed. 


exploratory questions
 
 

The word order is the same as in a statement. 
There is  no "do" or "did"needed

ordering, 
requesting
to + infinitive We told him to go to bed. No time shift

Special Verbs

Intention:  Example
Greeting: He welcomed.
No: He denied. / He disagreed. / 
She contradicted.
Yes: She agreed
Excuse: She excused
Thanks: She thanked
interjections: Oh, What..  She was surprised
Good-bye: He said good bye

2. time shift

Direct speech Reported speech
past
present perfect
past perfect
present past tense
future 1  Conditional

3. Change personal and possessive pronouns
see list

4. Change the adverbials of time and place
see list


<Click here and you will always get back to the table of contents>
Table of Contents
Reported speech: rules HOMEback to the homepagePAGE
back to the previous page back to
Relative clauses
go on to
verbs of saying
on to the next page